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Friday, December 8, 2017

Answer 1

Seven virtues
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The Catechism of the Catholic Church defines virtue as "an habitual and firm disposition to do the good."[1] Traditionally, the seven Christian virtues or heavenly virtues combine the four classical cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance and courage (or fortitude) with the three theological virtues of faith, hope and charity. These were adopted by the Church Fathers as the seven virtues.

Contents  [hide]
1 Cardinal virtues
2 Theological virtues
3 Seven heavenly virtues and seven deadly sins
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
Cardinal virtues[edit]
Main article: Cardinal virtues
The Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, regarded temperance, wisdom, justice, and courage as the four most desirable character traits. The Book of Wisdom is one of the seven Sapiential Books included in the Septuagint. Wisdom 8:7 states that the fruits of Wisdom "...are virtues; For she teaches moderation and prudence, justice and fortitude, and nothing in life is more useful for men than these."

The moral virtues are attitudes, dispositions, and good habits that govern one's actions, passions, and conduct according to reason; and are acquired by human effort.[2] Immanuel Kant said, "Virtue is the moral strength of the will in obeying the dictates of duty".[3] The cardinal virtues are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.

Prudence, from prudentia meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason.[4] It is called the Auriga virtutum (the charioteer of the virtues) as it guides the other virtues.[5]
Justice is that virtue which regulates man in his dealings with others. Connected to justice are the virtues of religion, piety, and gratitude. [6]
Thomas Aquinas ranks fortitude third after prudence and justice and equates it with brave endurance.[3] Patience and perseverance are virtues related to fortitude.
Temperance, is that moral virtue which moderates in accordance with reason the desires and pleasures of the sensuous appetite. Related to temperance are the virtues of continence, humility, and meekness.[6]
Philosophers recognized the interrelatedness of the virtues such that courage without prudence risks becoming mere foolhardiness. Aquinas found an interconnection of practical wisdom (prudentia) and moral virtue. This is frequently termed "the Unity of the Virtues."[7] Aquinas also argued that it not only matters what a person does but how the person does it. The person must aim at a good end and also make a right choice about the means to that end. The moral virtues direct the person to aim at a good end, but to insure that the person make the right choices about the means to a good end, one needs practical wisdom.[8]

Theological virtues[edit]
Main article: Theological virtues
The traditional understanding of the differences in the natures of Cardinal and Theological virtues, is that the latter are not fully accessible to humans in their natural state without assistance from God. "All virtues have as their final scope to dispose man to acts conducive to his true happiness. The happiness, however, of which man is capable is twofold, namely, natural, which is attainable by man's natural powers, and supernatural, which exceeds the capacity of unaided human nature. Since, therefore, merely natural principles of human action are inadequate to a supernatural end, it is necessary that man be endowed with supernatural powers to enable him to attain his final destiny. Now these supernatural principles are nothing else than the theological virtues."[6]

Seven heavenly virtues and seven deadly sins[edit]
A list of seven heavenly virtues that oppose the seven deadly sins appeared later in an epic poem titled Psychomachia, or Battle/Contest of the Soul. Written by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius, a Christian governor who died around 410 AD, it entails the battle between good virtues and evil vices. The enormous popularity of this work in the Middle Ages helped to spread the concept of holy virtue throughout Europe.

After Pope Gregory released his list of seven deadly sins in 590 AD, the seven virtues became identified as chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility. Practicing them is said to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins.

Virtue Latin Gloss Sin Latin
Chastity Castitas Purity, abstinence Lust Luxuria
Temperance Temperantia Humanity, equanimity Gluttony Gula
Charity Caritas Will, benevolence, generosity, sacrifice Greed Avaritia

Diligence Industria Persistence, Effort[disambiguation needed], ethics Sloth Acedia

Patience Patientia Forgiveness, mercy Wrath Ira
Kindness Humanitas Satisfaction, compassion Envy Invidia
Humility Humilitas Bravery, modesty, reverence Pride Superbia
See also[edit]
Enneagram of Personality
Knightly Virtues
Seven Deadly Sins
Jump up ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, §1803
Jump up ^ CCC §1804
^ Jump up to: a b Rickaby, John. "Fortitude." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 6 April 2017
Jump up ^ Prudence – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2012-08-31).
Jump up ^ CCC §1806
^ Jump up to: a b c Waldron, Martin Augustine. "Virtue." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 6 April 2017
Jump up ^ Annas, Julia. The Morality of Happiness (Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 73–84
Jump up ^ Aquinas. Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, Book VI, Lecture XI, ##1279–1280
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Virtue". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Seven Virtues.
External links[edit]
Hoopes, Tom. "Seven Passion Sins and Virtues", National Catholic Register
[hide] v t e
Catholic virtue ethics
Great Commandment; "On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets." – Matthew 22:35-40
Cardinal virtues
Prudence (Prudentia) Justice (Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia)
Sources: Plato Republic, Book IV Cicero St Ambrose St Augustine of Hippo St Thomas Aquinas CCC, 1805–1809
Faith, Hope and Love, as portrayed by Mary Lizzie Macomber (1861–1916)
Theological virtues
Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Charity (Caritas)
Sources: Paul the Apostle 1 Corinthians 13 CCC, 1812–1829
Seven heavenly virtues
Chastity (Castitas) Temperance (Temperantia) Charity (Caritas) Diligence (Industria) Patience (Patientia) Kindness (Humanitas) Humility (Humilitas)
Source: Church Fathers
Seven deadly sins
Lust (Luxuria) Gluttony (Gula) Greed (Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy (Invidia) Pride (Superbia)
Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia
People: Evagrius Ponticus St John Cassian Pope St Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld
Related concepts
Ten Commandments Four last things Sin Christian views on sin Original sin Christian views on the Old Covenant Hamartiology
(Latin names in bracketed italics) Catholic philosophy Catholic social teaching 046CupolaSPietro.jpg Catholicism portal Socrates.png Philosophy portal
[show] v t e
Seven deadly sins
Categories: AsceticismCatholic doctrinesChristian ethicsCultural listsSpiritualitySeven virtuesVirtueChristian terminology

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